How did Black Friday get is name?

How did Black Friday get is name?

The day after Thanksgiving, traditionally known as Black Friday is usually considered by retailers to be the beginning of the Christmas shopping season. It seems as though the shopping season starts earlier every year as I have been seeing a lot of advertising claiming to be offering the Black Friday Deals early.

black friday signDid you ever wonder how Black Friday received its name? For some reason I had associated it with the recession after World War II when the stock market crashed and there were a multitude of suicides on Wall Street. I don’t know why I thought this, it’s just in my thoughts.

Being curious, I researched the origin of the name on my favorite search engine and received a multitude of hits offering information. I was amazed at what I found out.

Not only was my thinking wrong on the subject wrong, but apparently, a lot of other people has wrong ideas also.

Whats your thoughts on this?

Here are a couple of links to what I thought are interesting  articles about the origin of the name:



The Veterans Administration has developed what is being called the “Veterans Justice Outreach Initiative”.  According a Department of Veterans Affairs, April 30, 2009, Under Secretary for Health’s Information Letter, “The purpose of the initiative is to avoid the unnecessary criminalization of mental illness and extended incarceration among Veterans by ensuring that eligible Veterans in contact with the criminal justice system have access to Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health and substantive services.”

In Arkansas, the initiative is being administered through the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System.  The initiative is one of many programs that is being offered.

Although the initiative does not prevent or preclude a veteran from having to face the consequences of his or her actions, it does allow a knowledgeable criminal defense attorney an additional avenue to better serve the client.

The VJO Initiative website can be accessed at

If you would like to learn more about Veterans Treatment Courts, please see the  Justice for Vets site.

Are You a Victim of Identity Theft?

Are You a Victim of Identity Theft?

idenity3Approximately 15 million United States residents are victims of identity theft. Their identities are used fraudulently with financial losses each year totaling upwards of $50 billion.*

On a case-by-case basis, that means approximately 7% of all adults have their identities misused with each instance resulting in approximately $3,500 in losses.

According to the Federal Trade Commission Identity theft is the fastest growing crime in America. The number of identity theft incidents has reached 9.9 million a year.  Every minute about 19 people fall victim to identity theft.

And according to Wikipedia the Free online Encyclopedia, identity theft is a form of stealing someone’s identity in which someone pretends to be someone else by assuming that person’s identity, usually as a method to gain access to resources or obtain credit and other benefits in that person’s name.

The victim of identity theft (here meaning the person whose identity has been assumed by the identity thief) can suffer adverse consequences if they are held responsible for the perpetrator’s actions.

Identity theft occurs when someone uses another’s personally identifying information, like their name, identifying number, or credit card number, without their permission, to commit fraud or other crimes such as when someone uses your personal information and Social Security number to set up new accounts that they can control and use to make purchases, or to even get a tax refund.

If you believe you are a victim of identity theft, you may need to take several steps to recover from it. The federal government has a one-stop resource to help you report and recover from identity theft at

The site provides step-by-step advice and helpful resources like checklists and sample letters to use in your recovery process.

Warning Signs of Identity Theft

Once identity thieves have your personal information, they can drain your bank account, run up charges on your credit cards, open new utility accounts, or get medical treatment on your health insurance. An identity thief can file a tax refund in your name and get your refund. In some extreme cases, a thief might even give your name to the police during an arrest.

Some warnings signs of Identity Theft are:

  • You see withdrawals from your bank account that you can’t explain.
  • You don’t get your bills or other mail.
  • Merchants refuse your checks.
  • Debt collectors call you about debts that aren’t yours.
  • You find unfamiliar accounts or charges on your credit report.
  • Medical providers bill you for services you didn’t use.
  • Your health plan rejects your legitimate medical claim because the records show you’ve reached your benefits limit.
  • A health plan won’t cover you because your medical records show a condition you don’t have.
  • The IRS notifies you that more than one tax return was filed in your name, or that you have income from an employer you don’t work for.
  • You get notice that your information was compromised by a data breach at a company where you do business or have an account.

If your wallet, Social Security number, or other personal information is lost or stolen, there are to help protect yourself from identity theft.

See the checklist at

Do I Need A Will


If you wish to designate how your estate is disbursed upon your death, you probably need a will. Your estate is generally considered to be your money, property and other possessions.

The laws vary considerably from state to state and if you die without a will, the state may decide who gets what, without regard to your wishes or your heirs’ needs.

A will is a legal document that sets forth your wishes regarding the distribution of your property upon your death.  Wills are also the best way to transfer guardianship of minors. A will can also be used to inform people about any other special wishes you would like carried out upon your death.

Also, in your will, you can name your executor, the person who you are designating to make sure that your wishes are carried out as outlined in your will.

You need for a will depends upon your specific circumstances. If you are a young person with no minor children and no assets, a will may not be beneficial to you. If you have minor children and extensive assets, a will may be beneficial to you and also your beneficiaries when you pass away.

If you have a small family with very few assets and you want to leave everything to them, creating a will is to meet your needs is fairly simple. If your situation is more complicated you’ll need to plan more carefully. A will can help make sure that what you leave behind passes to the people you intended.

To maximize the likelihood that your wishes are carried out, you want a will that is set forth in writing, and signed by you and your witnesses with your executor named.

As the laws do vary state by state, you may want to use an attorney to prepare your will to make sure it is legally valid and meets all the requirements set forth by the laws of your state.


Endangering the Welfare of a Minor

Endangering the Welfare of a Minor

Drivers who operate a vehicle with minor children as occupants should beware. An old law is being applied in a new manner and could have far reaching effects.

          The Arkansas Legislature passed law decades ago concerning the endangerment of the welfare of a minor or child.  That law, codified as Arkansas Code Annotated, Section 5-27-205, has rarely resulted in arrests.  The law in pertinent part provides that:

(a) A person commits the offense of endangering the welfare of a minor in the first degree if, being a parent, guardian, person legally charged with care or custody of a minor, or a person charged with supervision of a minor, he or she purposely:

(1) Engages in conduct creating a substantial risk of death or serious physical injury to a minor;”

(b) Endangering the welfare of a minor in the first degree is a Class D felony.”

          As one can readily conclude, the law is very broad in nature and can be literally construed to cover a large number of activities.  I have been retained recently in two separate cases, each of which involves a young parent who was operating a vehicle while his or her young child was a passenger. In each of those cases, the Arkansas State Police have interpreted an old law to apply to new factual situations.

          In the first of those cases, the young parent was driving 95 miles per hour in 55 miles per hour speed zone.  An Arkansas State Policeman made a traffic stop and thereafter issued multiple citations for alleged illegal activities.  One of those charges was for the offense of endangering the welfare of a minor in the first degree. 

          In the second of those cases, the young parent had been to a party at a neighbor’s house.  When the parent left the party to travel a very short distance to their home, a young child was correctly secured in a child restraint device/seat.  While enroute home, the vehicle passed through a DWI checkpoint.  The driver was ultimately charged with DWI and endangering the welfare of a minor in the first degree.

In each of those cases, the young parent faces up to 6 years in the penitentiary, if convicted.   The legal issue in both cases is whether the parent/driver was engaging in conduct that created a substantial risk of death or serious physical injury to a minor.  Stated differently, does driving while impaired or driving at an excess speed constitute conduct that in and of itself creates a substantial risk of death or serious physical injury to the minor occupant.  The appellate courts of Arkansas have yet to consider that question.

          Until just recently, I was unaware of the law having been applied to motorists who were driving with minor children in the vehicle.  The referenced arrests were made within a thirty-day period of time by separate officers.  I firmly believe that we will be seeing many more arrests of motorists on felony charges of endangering the welfare of minor passengers. 

Whether those arrests will lead to convictions is yet to be determined.  I suspect that most motorists would never dream that he or she could be sentenced to the penitentiary for speeding or for driving under the influence of alcohol/drugs.  Drivers should beware that the combination of minor children occupants and driving at a speed greatly in excess of the posted speed limit and/or driving while under the influence of drugs and alcohol can be considered as irresponsible driving.  Those same drivers should beware that irresponsible driving may result in the filing of felony charges.